Traditionally refers to the study of cultural similarities and differences. In Integral Theory, it is exemplified in the study of worldviews and their patterns and regularities, as conducted by researchers as diverse as Jean Gebser and Michel Foucault. A third-person approach to first-person plural realities. An outside view of the interior of a collective (i.e., the outside view of a holon in the Lower-Left quadrant). Exemplary of a zone-#4 methodology in Integral Methodological Pluralism, along with other approaches like semiotics and ethnomethodology.